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Sélection Cochrane pour les physiothérapeutes: JUILLET (Issue 7, 2012)

Rédigé par le Lundi 30 Juillet 2012



Sélection Cochrane pour les physiothérapeutes: JUILLET (Issue 7, 2012)
Voici la sélection de JUILLET (Issue 7, 2012) des titres des nouvelles revues systématiques Cochrane publiées ou mises à jour en rapport avec la pratique des kinésithérapeutes / physiothérapeutes:

1. Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults

Objectives
To determine the effects of biofeedback and/or anal sphincter exercises/pelvic floor muscle training for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults.

Authors' conclusions
The limited number of identified trials together with methodological weaknesses of many do not allow a definitive assessment of the role of anal sphincter exercises and biofeedback therapy in the management of people with faecal incontinence. We found some evidence that biofeedback and electrical stimulation may enhance the outcome of treatment compared to electrical stimulation alone or exercises alone. Exercises appear to be less effective than an implanted sacral nerve stimulator. While there is a suggestion that some elements of biofeedback therapy and sphincter exercises may have a therapeutic effect, this is not certain. Larger well-designed trials are needed to enable safe conclusions.

2. Exercise for depression
Objectives
To determine the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression. Our secondary outcomes included drop-outs from exercise and control groups, costs, quality of life and adverse events.

Authors' conclusions
Exercise seems to improve depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosis of depression when compared with no treatment or control intervention, however since analyses of methodologically robust trials show a much smaller effect in favour of exercise, some caution is required in interpreting these results.

3. Exercise for pregnant women for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus
Objectives
To assess the effects of physical exercise for pregnant women for preventing glucose intolerance or GDM

Authors' conclusions
There is limited randomised controlled trial evidence available on the effect of exercise during pregnancy for preventing pregnancy glucose intolerance or GDM. Results from three randomised trials with moderate risk of bias suggested no significant difference in GDM incidence between women receiving an additional exercise intervention and routine care.

Based on the limited data currently available, conclusive evidence is not available to guide practice. Larger, well-designed randomised trials, with standardised behavioural interventions are needed to assess the effects of exercise on preventing GDM and other adverse pregnancy outcomes including large-for-gestational age and perinatal mortality. Longer-term health outcomes for both women and their babies and health service costs should be included. Several such trials are in progress. We identified another seven trials which are ongoing and we will consider these for inclusion in the next update of this review.

4. Inhaled corticosteroids for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Objectives
To determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in stable patients with COPD, in terms of objective and subjective outcomes.

Authors' conclusions
Patients and clinicians should balance the potential benefits of inhaled steroids in COPD (reduced rate of exacerbations, reduced rate of decline in quality of life and possibly reduced rate of decline in FEV1) against the potential side effects (oropharyngeal candidiasis and hoarseness, and risk of pneumonia).

5. Physiotherapy versus placebo or no intervention in Parkinson's disease
Objectives
To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD.

Authors' conclusions
Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes. The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.

6. Positioning for acute respiratory distress in hospitalised infants and children
Objectives
To compare the effects of different body positions in hospitalised infants and children with acute respiratory distress.

Authors' conclusions
The prone position was significantly superior to the supine position in terms of oxygenation. However, as most participants were ventilated preterm infants, the benefits of prone positioning may be most relevant to these infants. In addition, although placing infants and children in the prone position may improve respiratory function, the association of SIDS with prone positioning means that infants should only be placed in this position while under continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring.

7. Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome
Objectives
To compare the effectiveness of splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention.

Authors' conclusions
Overall, there is limited evidence that a splint worn at night is more effective than no treatment in the short term, but there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of one splint design or wearing regimen over others, and of splint over other non-surgical interventions for CTS. More research is needed on the long-term effects of this intervention for CTS.

8. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults
Objectives
To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain

Authors' conclusions
Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief, without the systemic adverse events associated with oral NSAIDs, when used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions.

9. Treatment for ulnar neuropathy at the elbow
Objectives
To determine the effectiveness and safety of conservative and surgical treatments in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow

Authors' conclusions
The available evidence is not sufficient to identify the best treatment for idiopathic ulnar neuropathy at the elbow on the basis of clinical, neurophysiological and imaging characteristics. We do not know when to treat a patient conservatively or surgically. However, the results of our meta-analysis suggest that simple decompression and decompression with transposition are equally effective in idiopathic ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, including when the nerve impairment is severe. In mild cases, evidence from one small RCT of conservative treatment showed that information on movements or positions to avoid may reduce subjective discomfort.

10. Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma
Objectives
To assess the effect of various interventions for weight loss on measures of asthma control and weight loss amongst overweight or obese patients with chronic asthma.

Authors' conclusions
This review found one randomized trial that showed that weight loss may be beneficial for improving asthma control in overweight and obese patients, in conjunction with weight loss in intervention groups in the short term. Applying the GRADE system to the results of this review however, shows that the quality of evidence is low, because although all four studies are RCTs there were serious methodological limitations in the studies (unclear risk of selection bias and high risk of detection bias) and imprecision (small sample size). There is inadequate evidence to comment on the effect of weight loss interventions on quality of life and health care utilization. In addition, there was inadequate reporting of data on adverse effects to permit proper balancing of harms and benefits of the interventions. On account of this low quality of evidence, the benefit of weight loss as an intervention for asthma control remains uncertain, and as such, clinicians should be prepared to help patients to make a decision that is consistent with their own values.


Les revues ont été sélectionnées par un comité de lecteurs indépendants.

Retrouvez la lettre d'information et les titres des revues en ligne sur le site du centre Cochrane français

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